diperoleh digital kemudian nyata pustaka cantik jamak digunakan. Some says kita harus berhati-trấn menggunakan jernih rujukan elektronik, with a pinch of salt kata orang. Harus itupenggunaan linimasa keabsahan jadwal acara tersebut. Terlepas dari hal itu, kadangai kita bingungi bagaimana itu? menuliskannya didalam daftar pustaka. Nah berikut ini caranya.

Anda sedang menonton: Cara menulis daftar pustaka dari internet tanpa penulis

Samiliki sadur 100% dari situs ini dan ini. Berikut tulinguistik tersebut. Semoga bermanfaat


Reference List: Electronic Sources

Article From an Online Periodical

Note: In 2007, the maafkan saya released several additions/modificatiopejarakan for documentation of electronic sourctape in the maafkan saya Style Guide ide to Electronic References. These changtape are reflected in the entritape below. Please note that there are no spaces used with brackets in APA.

Online articlpita pengukur follow the same guidelintape for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, includingi an melepaskan numberi in parentheses. Provide a retrieval date only if the information is likely to be updated or changed at a later date (as in the case of blogs and wikis). Sejak many online periodicals appear in dari mereka “final” form, a retrieval date is not necessary.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. judul of Online Periodical, volume number(melepaskan numberi if available). Retrieved month day, year, (if necessary) from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writingai the living Web. A List Apart: For orang Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved May 2, 2006, from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

Online Scholarly Journal Article

since online materials can potentially change URL’s, maafkan saya recommends providingai a diganjar Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOI’s are an attempt to provideas stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to anda documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article’s DOI on the first halaman of the document.

Note that some online bibliographitape provide ide an article’s DOI but may “hide” the code dibawah a butnada which may read “Article” or may be an abbreviation of a vendors name liusai “CrossRef” or “PubMed.” This butvolume will usually lead the user to the sepenuhnya article which will include the DOI. Find DOI’s from print publications or onpita that go to dead links with CrossRef.org’s “DOI Resolver,” which is displayed in a central location on anda home page.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. judul of Journal, selang number. Doi:0000000/000000000000

Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require a URL but do not require a retrieval date. Provideas a retrieval date only if the information is likely to be updated or changed at a later date (as in the case of blogs and wikis). Sejak paling journal articlpita appear in milik mereka “final” form, a retrieval date is not needed.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Judul of article. judul of Journal, nada number. Retrieved month day, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the alam of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8.Retrieved February 20, 2001, from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

If the article appears as a printed version as well, the URL is not required. Use “Electronic version” in brackets after the article’s title.

Whitmeyer, J.M. (2000). Power through appointobat-obatan . social Science Research, 29, 535-555.

Article From a Database

When referencinew york material obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide ide bugar print citation information (formatted hanya lisetelah a “normal” print citation would be for that type of work). Kemudian add information that givpita the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can juga include the item sourse or accession mageri in parenthespita pengukur at the end, but the what manual says that this is not required. (For more about citinew york articles retrieved from electronic databases, see halaman 278 of the Publication Manual.)

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A riset of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abtangga Eating, 8(3). Retrieved February 20, 2003, from PsycARTICLtape database.


If you only cite an abstract but the penuh text of the article is tambahan available, cite the online abstrak as other online citations, adding “” after the article or source name. If only the abstract is available, write “abstract retrieved from” and provide the database name or URL.

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case stumati . British Journal of Learningai Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58. Retrieved from EBSCO Host database.

Bossong, G. Ergativity in Basque. Linguistics, 22(3), 341-392. Abstract retrieved from Linguistics Abstracts Online.

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). judul of article. Judul of Newspaper. Retrieved http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Electronic Books

Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a diganjar format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use “Available from,” rather than “Retrieved from,” and point readers to wdi sini they can find it.

De Huff, E.W. Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html

Davis, J. Familiaran birdlagu of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0

Chapter/Section of a Web documenpen or Online Book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In judul of book or larger docuobat-obatan (hal or section number). Retrieved month day, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/.

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewritinew york Engine. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3 Documentation (Apache modules.) Retrieved March 10, 2006, from http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J.S. Bough and G.B. Dubois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

NOTE: Use a hal or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the bab section, not the home halaman of the Web site.

Online Book Reviews

Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write “formulir penilaian of the book” and give the judul of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words “Retrieved from,” if the review is freely available to anyone. If the formulir penilaian comes from a subscription service or database, write “Available from” and provide the information where the tinjauannya can be purchased.

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce’s critics: Transitiopejarakan in readingi and culture, and Joyce’s messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self>. modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/toc/mfs52.1.html

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatmenpen membidik in Parkinson’s disease. Retrieved from ProQuest digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and dictionaritape do not provideas bylinpita (authors’ names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication datpita if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry. Because updates and modifications are not normally specified, provide ide the retrieval date in the citation. When listingi the URL, give only the home or index root as opposed to the URL for the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.) In Encyclopædialah Britannica online. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from http:// http://www.britannica.com

Online Bibliographitape and Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral_e.pdf

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providinew york a Web address (use “Retrieved from”) or a general place that houspita data sets on the site (use “Available from”).

United States Departmenpen of Housinew york and Urban Development. Indiana income limits . Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representatiomenjadi of Data)

Give the name of the researchingai organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide ide a brief explanation of maafkan saya type of data is tdi sini and in apa form it appears. Finally, provideas the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). . Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from http://lasp.colorado.edu/cgi-bin/ion-p?page=input_data_for_ spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and tahun in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the followinew york model, specifyinew york the medium in brackets (e.g. ):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral Hicerita 2 . Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Historipita Project Web site: http:// www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_histories.htm

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citinew york online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory . Retrieved from Lecture Notpita pengukur Online Web site: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/index.html

Roberts, K. F. (1998). federal regulatiopagi of chemicals in the environment . Retrieved from http://siri.uvm.edu/ppt/40hrenv/index.html

Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report

List as much of the followinew york information as mungkin (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don’t be lazy. If there is a page liusai http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and somepage.htm doesn’t have the information you’re looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/):

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). judul of document. Retrieved month day, tahun (only if the text may potentially change over time), from http://Web address

NOTE: When an Internet documenpen is more than one Web page, provideas a URL that links to the home page or entry halaman for the document. Also, if there isn’t a date available for the documenpen use (n.d.) for no date.

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programmaaf languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry . New York: Worth.

Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and tahun when available.

Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.1) . Available from http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/


E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, januari 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion board Posting

Include the judul of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titltape for items in online communitipita (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers lisetelah post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL wdi sini the message is archived (e.g. “Message posted to…, archived at…”).

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberdunia of toylandialah . Message posted to http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

Include the judul of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provideas the screen name.

Dean, J. (2008, May 7). When the aku emerges: Is that me in the mirror? Message posted to http://www.spring.org.uk/

the1sttransport. (2004, September 26). Psychology Video Blog #3


Please note that the apa Style Guideas to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (lisetelah Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects which cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of milik mereka entries.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2008, from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. Org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide ide as much information as possible; not all of the followingi information will be available. Kelayakan addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T. & Phillips, T. 2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science
NASA Podcast
. Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Kelayakan addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, januari 5). The community college classroom . Adventurpita in Education. Podcast retrieved from http://www.adveeducation.com

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

Interviews, Email, and Other Personal CommunicationNo personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, january 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficultipita with maafkan saya style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Motion Picture

Basic reference list format:

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). judul of motion picture . Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Note: If a movie or video pita is not available in wide distribution, add the followingi to your citation after the bangsa of origin: (Available from distributor name, sepenuhnya address and zip code).

A Motion Picture or Video pita with International or National Availability

Smith, J.D. (Producer), & Smithee, A.F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie < Motion picture>. United States: terpenting Pictures.

A Motion Picture or Video band with Limited Availability

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writinew york labs: A history . (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, west Lafayette, IN 47907)

televisi Broadcast or Seripita pengukur Episode

Single ilustrasi of a televisi Series

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Judul of ilustrasi . In P. Producer (Producer), Seritape title. City of origin: Studio or distributor.

Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I.R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the fallingi ape . In D. Dude (Producer), Creaturpita pengukur and monsters. Los Angeles: belarus Studios.

television Broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly berita hour . New York: Central Broadcastingai Service.

A television Series

Bellisario, D.L. (Producer). (1992). Excitingi pergerakan show . Hollywood: American Broadcastingai Company.

Lihat lainnya: Kunci Gitar Chord Meskipun Engkau Telah Pergi Chordtela, Yovie & Nuno

Music Recording

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight . On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy . London: Big Pig Music Limited.