diperoleh digital kemudian nyata pustaka cantik jamak digunakan. Some says kita harus berhati-trấn menggunakan jernih rujukan elektronik, with a pinch of salt kata orang. Harus itupenggunaan linimasa keabsahan jadwal acara tersebut. Terlepas dari hal itu, kadangai kita bingungi bagaimana itu? menuliskannya didalam daftar pustaka. Nah berikut ini caranya.
Anda sedang menonton: Cara menulis daftar pustaka dari internet tanpa penulis
Samiliki sadur 100% dari situs ini dan ini. Berikut tulinguistik tersebut. Semoga bermanfaat
Reference List: Electronic SourcesArticle From an Online Periodical
Note: In 2007, the maafkan saya released several additions/modificatiopejarakan for documentation of electronic sourctape in the maafkan saya Style Guide ide to Electronic References. These changtape are reflected in the entritape below. Please note that there are no spaces used with brackets in APA.
Online articlpita pengukur follow the same guidelintape for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, includingi an melepaskan numberi in parentheses. Provide a retrieval date only if the information is likely to be updated or changed at a later date (as in the case of blogs and wikis). Sejak many online periodicals appear in dari mereka “final” form, a retrieval date is not necessary.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. judul of Online Periodical, volume number(melepaskan numberi if available). Retrieved month day, year, (if necessary) from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writingai the living Web. A List Apart: For orang Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved May 2, 2006, from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving
Online Scholarly Journal Article
since online materials can potentially change URL’s, maafkan saya recommends providingai a diganjar Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOI’s are an attempt to provideas stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to anda documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article’s DOI on the first halaman of the document.
Note that some online bibliographitape provide ide an article’s DOI but may “hide” the code dibawah a butnada which may read “Article” or may be an abbreviation of a vendors name liusai “CrossRef” or “PubMed.” This butvolume will usually lead the user to the sepenuhnya article which will include the DOI. Find DOI’s from print publications or onpita that go to dead links with CrossRef.org’s “DOI Resolver,” which is displayed in a central location on anda home page.Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. judul of Journal, selang number. Doi:0000000/000000000000
Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned
Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require a URL but do not require a retrieval date. Provideas a retrieval date only if the information is likely to be updated or changed at a later date (as in the case of blogs and wikis). Sejak paling journal articlpita appear in milik mereka “final” form, a retrieval date is not needed.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Judul of article. judul of Journal, nada number. Retrieved month day, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the alam of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8.Retrieved February 20, 2001, from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html
If the article appears as a printed version as well, the URL is not required. Use “Electronic version” in brackets after the article’s title.
Whitmeyer, J.M. (2000). Power through appointobat-obatan
Article From a Database
When referencinew york material obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide ide bugar print citation information (formatted hanya lisetelah a “normal” print citation would be for that type of work). Kemudian add information that givpita the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can juga include the item sourse or accession mageri in parenthespita pengukur at the end, but the what manual says that this is not required. (For more about citinew york articles retrieved from electronic databases, see halaman 278 of the Publication Manual.)
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A riset of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abtangga Eating, 8(3). Retrieved February 20, 2003, from PsycARTICLtape database.
If you only cite an abstract but the penuh text of the article is tambahan available, cite the online abstrak as other online citations, adding “
Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case stumati
Bossong, G. Ergativity in Basque. Linguistics, 22(3), 341-392. Abstract retrieved from Linguistics Abstracts Online.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). judul of article. Judul of Newspaper. Retrieved http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a diganjar format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use “Available from,” rather than “Retrieved from,” and point readers to wdi sini they can find it.
De Huff, E.W. Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html
Davis, J. Familiaran birdlagu of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0
Chapter/Section of a Web documenpen or Online Book Chapter
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In judul of book or larger docuobat-obatan (hal or section number). Retrieved month day, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/.
Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewritinew york Engine. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3 Documentation (Apache modules.) Retrieved March 10, 2006, from http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html
Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J.S. Bough and G.B. Dubois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.
NOTE: Use a hal or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the bab section, not the home halaman of the Web site.Online Book Reviews
Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write “formulir penilaian of the book” and give the judul of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words “Retrieved from,” if the review is freely available to anyone. If the formulir penilaian comes from a subscription service or database, write “Available from” and provide the information where the tinjauannya can be purchased.
Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce
Dissertation/Thesis from a Database
Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatmenpen membidik in Parkinson’s disease. Retrieved from ProQuest digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)
Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Often encyclopedias and dictionaritape do not provideas bylinpita (authors’ names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication datpita if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry. Because updates and modifications are not normally specified, provide ide the retrieval date in the citation. When listingi the URL, give only the home or index root as opposed to the URL for the entry.
Feminism. (n.d.) In Encyclopædialah Britannica online. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from http:// http://www.britannica.com
Online Bibliographitape and Annotated Bibliographies
Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral_e.pdf
Point readers to raw data by providinew york a Web address (use “Retrieved from”) or a general place that houspita data sets on the site (use “Available from”).
United States Departmenpen of Housinew york and Urban Development. Indiana income limits . Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf
Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representatiomenjadi of Data)
Give the name of the researchingai organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide ide a brief explanation of maafkan saya type of data is tdi sini and in apa form it appears. Finally, provideas the project name and retrieval information.
Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007).
Qualitative Data and Online Interviews
If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and tahun in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the followinew york model, specifyinew york the medium in brackets (e.g.
Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral Hicerita 2
Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides
When citinew york online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).
Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory
Roberts, K. F. (1998). federal regulatiopagi of chemicals in the environment
Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report
List as much of the followinew york information as mungkin (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don’t be lazy. If there is a page liusai http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and somepage.htm doesn’t have the information you’re looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/):
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). judul of document. Retrieved month day, tahun (only if the text may potentially change over time), from http://Web address
NOTE: When an Internet documenpen is more than one Web page, provideas a URL that links to the home page or entry halaman for the document. Also, if there isn’t a date available for the documenpen use (n.d.) for no date.Computer Software/Downloaded Software
Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programmaaf languages. Provide references only for specialized software.
Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry
Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and tahun when available.
Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.1)
E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, januari 4, 2001).Online Forum or Discussion board Posting
Include the judul of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titltape for items in online communitipita (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers lisetelah post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL wdi sini the message is archived (e.g. “Message posted to…, archived at…”).
Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberdunia of toylandialah
Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post
Include the judul of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provideas the screen name.
Dean, J. (2008, May 7). When the aku emerges: Is that me in the mirror? Message posted to http://www.spring.org.uk/
the1sttransport. (2004, September 26). Psychology Video Blog #3
Please note that the apa Style Guideas to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (lisetelah Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects which cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of milik mereka entries.
OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2008, from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. Org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay
For all podcasts, provide ide as much information as possible; not all of the followingi information will be available. Kelayakan addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.
Bell, T. & Phillips, T. 2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science
NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm
For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Kelayakan addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.
Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, januari 5). The community college classroom
Reference List: Other Non-Print SourcesInterviews, Email, and Other Personal CommunicationNo personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, january 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficultipita with maafkan saya style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Basic reference list format:
Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). judul of motion picture
Note: If a movie or video pita is not available in wide distribution, add the followingi to your citation after the bangsa of origin: (Available from distributor name, sepenuhnya address and zip code).A Motion Picture or Video pita with International or National Availability
Smith, J.D. (Producer), & Smithee, A.F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie < Motion picture>. United States: terpenting Pictures.
A Motion Picture or Video band with Limited Availability
Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writinew york labs: A history
televisi Broadcast or Seripita pengukur Episode
Single ilustrasi of a televisi Series
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Judul of ilustrasi
Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I.R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the fallingi ape
Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly berita hour
A television Series
Bellisario, D.L. (Producer). (1992). Excitingi pergerakan show
Lihat lainnya: Kunci Gitar Chord Meskipun Engkau Telah Pergi Chordtela, Yovie & Nuno
Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight